When mosquitoes bite they cause a small itchy red bump on your skin. Some people develop an allergic skin reaction to the bites, and the bumps become large. Scratching the bites can lead to infections developing in the skin.
Clothing stops mosquitoes reaching your skin and biting. Mosquitoes cannot bite through loose clothing but can if your clothing is tight. In hot climates, your clothing can be thin, as long as it is loose. Any areas of skin not covered by clothing should have insect repellent applied.
A mosquito net creates a barrier, preventing mosquitoes and other insects being able to reach your skin when you are sleeping or resting. The barrier is stronger if the net has also been treated (impregnated) with insecticide.
The net should allow enough space so that your skin does not rest directly against it, because mosquitoes may still bite through it. This opportunity is reduced if your net has been treated with insecticide.
None of this was too surprising to Rebecca Short, a researcher with the Zoological Society of London and lead author of the new study. Short first witnessed the practice in a beach town in Mozambique, where she watched two women use mosquito nets to scoop small sea creatures out of the surf.
While visiting a rice field area in southern China in 1979, mosquito nets were widely used in nearby villages to provide some protection against the onslaught of abundant biting mosquitoes. Many mosquitoes engorged with blood, similar to what I saw in Nigeria, were resting inside the torn nets. The sleeping villagers were inadvertently acting as attractants. I instantly knew I was on to something. A simple and safe way to treat the nets with an effective insecticide would eliminate those mosquitoes and provide great benefits to the affected inhabitants.
The preferred chemical was permethrin. Permethrin-treated clothing worn without reported side effects was a positive safety factor. Although deltamethrin had good acceptance in China, there were occasional reports of tingling skin sensation in China and Papua New Guinea when families handled nets before complete drying. Those treating were encouraged to use gloves, wear clothing covering arms and legs, and wash afterwards. Nets left hanging and exposed during the day provided shade, suitable texture for mosquito resting, and complete drying if needed.
Mosquito nets were produced in China and owned by millions of families. Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu lacked inexpensive nets. Cheaper polyethylene mosquito nets were obtained from factories in the Philippines, and polyester nets from Thailand. Cotton nets were awkward to treat and dry and not used unless already owned (Figure 5).
All nine malaria endemic countries by 1999 had implemented treated mosquito net control activities, combined with diagnosis and treatment of malaria patients. About a decade after the first workshop in Vanuatu, millions of such nets were used. Table 3 shows data for 1995.6 It excludes China where mass mobilization treatments sometimes involved millions of nets.
Some of the malarias depicted align with biomedical conceptions and mirror common images of: its sources (e.g. mosquitoes); symptoms (e.g. fever); prevention practices (e.g. use of mosquito nets); diagnostic practices (e.g. use of microscopy and Rapid Diagnostic Tests) and treatment practices (e.g. use of anti-malarial drugs). This is illustrated by the examples in (Figures 1, 2, 3).
These pictures show the Health Centre and the list of the names of people who will have a check-up of their blood. We can also see the equipment that tells us if we have malaria or not. This is where we can know if our blood is positive or negative and if we are sick with malaria.
However, these largely positive outcomes were not uniform across all participants as some young people reported that they had not communicated what they had learnt with others. Some young people reported that even though they did feel less shy or had learnt new things as a result of the project, they still did not feel able to teach others new things. Furthermore, although the majority of young people reported positive outcomes, this does not necessarily mean all participants had the same experience or derived the same benefits. Young people are, after all, not homogenous groups, with similarities or connectedness determined simply by their similar age . This highlights an important point about participatory research with young people but also research more generally: that the views voiced by some children in research, cannot represent all children everywhere (ibid.).
We are visitng the Philippines in January, February and March 2012 and wondered how bad the mosquitoes are at this time of year. We plan to do our travelling in the Visayas and are staying in a mix of budget accomodation.
There are mosquito nets with a twistable wire frame available at SM Department Stores Bed & Bath section. It's free standing so no need to hang. Likewise handy when traveling as it's easy to fold and pack. A queen size retails for P500.
A mosquito net is a type of meshed curtain that is circumferentially draped over a bed or a sleeping area, to offer the sleeper barrier protection against bites and stings from mosquitos, flies, and other pest insects, and thus against the diseases they may carry. Examples of such preventable insect-borne diseases include malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, zika virus, Chagas disease and various forms of encephalitis, including the West Nile virus.
Mosquito netting is mainly used for the protection against the malaria transmitting vector, Anopheles gambiae. The first record of malaria-like symptoms occurred as early as 2700 BCE from China. The vector for this disease was not identified until 1880 when Sir Ronald Ross identified mosquitoes as a vector for malaria.
Mosquito netting has a long history. Though use of the term dates from the mid-18th century, Indian literature from the late medieval period has references to the usage of mosquito nets in ritual Hindu worship. Poetry composed by Annamayya, the earliest known Telugu musician and poet, references domatera, which means \"mosquito net\" in Telugu. Use of mosquito nets has been dated to prehistoric times. It is said that Cleopatra, the last active pharaoh of Ancient Egypt, also slept under a mosquito net. Mosquito nets were used during the malaria-plagued construction of the Suez Canal.
Mosquito netting can be made from cotton, polyethylene, polyester, polypropylene, or nylon. A mesh size of 1.2 millimetres (0.047 in) stops mosquitoes, and smaller, such as 0.6 millimetres (0.024 in), stops other biting insects such as biting midges/no-see-ums.
A mosquito bar is an alternate form of a mosquito net. It is constructed of a fine see-through mesh fabric mounted on and draped over a box-shaped frame. It is designed to fit over an area or item such as a sleeping bag to provide protection from insects. A mosquito bar could be used to protect oneself from mosquitoes and other insects while sleeping in jungle areas. The mesh is woven tightly enough to stop insects from entering but loosely enough to not interfere with ventilation. The frame is usually self-supporting or freestanding although it can be designed to be attached from the top to an alternative support such as tree limbs.
Mosquito nets are often used where malaria or other insect-borne diseases are common, especially as a tent-like covering over a bed. For effectiveness, it is important that the netting not have holes or gaps large enough to allow insects to enter. It is also important to 'seal' the net properly because mosquitoes are able to 'squeeze' through improperly secured nets. Because an insect can bite a person through the net, the net must not rest directly on the skin.
Mosquito netting can be hung over beds from the ceiling or a frame, built into tents, or installed in windows and doors. When hung over beds, rectangular nets provide more room for sleeping without the danger of netting contacting skin, at which point mosquitoes may bite through untreated netting. Some newer mosquito nets are designed to be both easy to deploy and foldable after use.
Where mosquito nets are freely or cheaply distributed, local residents sometimes opportunistically use them inappropriately, for example as fishing nets. When used for fishing, mosquito nets have harmful ecological consequences because the fine mesh of a mosquito net retains almost all fish, including bycatch such as immature or small fish and fish species that are not suitable for consumption. In addition, insecticides with which the mesh has been treated, such as permethrin, may be harmful to the fish and other aquatic fauna.
ITNs protect people sleeping under them and simultaneously kill mosquitoes that contact the nets. Some protection is provided to others by this method, including people sleeping in the same room but not under the net. However, mathematical modeling has suggested that disease transmission may be exacerbated after bed nets have lost their insecticidal properties under certain circumstances. Although ITN users are still protected by the physical barrier of the netting, non-users could experience an increased bite rate as mosquitoes are deflected away from the non-lethal bed net users. The modeling suggests that this could increase transmission when the human population density is high or at lower human densities when mosquitoes are more adept at locating their blood meals.
In December 2019 it was reported that West African populations of Anopheles gambiae include mutants with higher levels of sensory appendage protein 2 (a type of chemosensory protein in the legs), which binds to pyrethroids, sequestering them and so preventing them from functioning, thus making the mosquitoes with this mutation more likely to survive contact with bednets.
However, a randomized controlled trial study of ITNs uptake among pregnant women in Kenya, conducted by economists Pascaline Dupas and Jessica Cohen, found that cost-sharing does not necessarily increase the usage intensity of ITNs nor does it induce uptake by those most vulnerable to infection, as compared to a policy of free distribution. In some cases, cost-sharing can decrease demand for mosquito nets by erecting a price barrier. Dupas and Cohen's findings support the argument that free distribution of ITNs can be more effective than cost-sharing in increasing coverage and saving lives. In a cost-effectiveness analysis, Dupas and Cohen note that \"cost-sharing is at best marginally more cost-effective than free distribution, but free distribution leads to many more lives saved.\" 59ce067264