There are many definitions of grey literature, but it is usually understood to mean literature that is not formally published in sources such as books or journal articles. Conference abstracts and other grey literature have been shown to be sources of approximately 10% of the studies referenced in Cochrane reviews (Mallett 2002). In a recently updated Cochrane methodology review, all five studies reviewed showed that published trials showed an overall greater treatment effect than grey literature trials (Hopewell 2007b). Thus, failure to identify trials reported in conference proceedings and other grey literature might affect the results of a systematic review.
The National Technical Information Service (NTIS) provides access to the results of both US and non-US government-sponsored research and can provide the full text of the technical report for most of the results retrieved. NTIS is free on the internet.
PsycEXTRA is a companion database to PsycINFO in psychology, behavioural science and health. It includes references from newsletters, magazines, newspapers, technical and annual reports, government reports and consumer brochures. PsycEXTRA is different from PsycINFO in its format, because it includes abstracts and citations plus full text for a major portion of the records. There is no coverage overlap with PsycINFO.
Methods for working with consumers and other stakeholders include surveys, workshops, focus groups and involvement in advisory groups. Decisions about what methods to use will typically be based on resource availability, but review teams should be aware of the merits and limitations of such methods. Authors will need to decide who to involve and how to provide adequate support for their involvement. This can include financial reimbursement, the provision of training, and stating clearly expectations of involvement, possibly in the form of terms of reference.
All MECIR expectations for the conduct of a review are presented in the relevant chapters of this Handbook. Expectations for reporting of completed reviews (including PLEACS) are described in online Chapter III. The recommendations provided in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement have been incorporated into the Cochrane reporting expectations, ensuring compliance with the PRISMA recommendations and summarizing attributes of reporting that should allow a full assessment of the methods and findings of the review (Moher et al 2009).
A key purpose of the protocol is to make plans to minimize bias in the eventual findings of the review. Reliable synthesis of available evidence requires a planned, systematic approach. Threats to the validity of systematic reviews can come from the studies they include or the process by which reviews are conducted. Biases within the studies can arise from the method by which participants are allocated to the intervention groups, awareness of intervention group assignment, and the collection, analysis and reporting of data. Methods for examining these issues should be specified in the protocol. Review processes can generate bias through a failure to identify an unbiased (and preferably complete) set of studies, and poor quality assurance throughout the review. The availability of research may be influenced by the nature of the results (i.e. reporting bias). To reduce the impact of this form of bias, searching may need to include unpublished sources of evidence (Dwan et al 2013) (MECIR Box 1.5.b).
10. Based on price, availability, quality, customer demand, and unique regulatory environments across our global retail markets. Read the full policy: -policy. As tracked on the FishChoice platform, FisheryProgress.org. Publicly registered FIPs include FIPs and Pre-FIPs, both of which are registered with Fishsource.
This supplemental data set can be used as a resource for cancer control planning at the state level, as well as to address questions from the media or American Cancer Society (ACS) constituents. ACS Regions are encouraged to share this information with staff and volunteers, and to use it with state and local officials, reporters, and other public health and advocacy groups in local communities.
For every forcing scenario, particles were identically and continuously released in time from 1993 to 2012 following spatial distributions and amplitudes of significant ocean plastic sources on land (coastal population hotspots23 and major rivers24) as well as at sea (fishing26,41, aquaculture42 and shipping industries43). Source scenarios were combined using relative source contribution as well as geographical distribution presented in Supplementary Methods 4. We advected global particles in time using the forcing scenarios described above and successfully reproduced the formation of oceanic garbage patches, with the shape and gradient of particle concentrations in these areas differing amongst forcing scenarios. We computed daily particle visits over 0.2 resolution grids corresponding to our observation domain and extending from 160W to 120W in longitude and 20N to 45N in latitude. The number of daily particle visits was uniformized over the total number of particles present in the global model at a given time. The model-predicted non-dimensional concentration δ i of cell i, was calculated as follows:
(c) In cases in which the prosecutor conducts a pretrial investigation of the background of potential jurors, the investigative methods used should not harass, intimidate, or unduly embarrass or invade the privacy of potential jurors. Absent special circumstances, such investigation should be restricted to review of records and sources of information already in existence and to which access is lawfully allowed. If the prosecutor uses record searches that are unavailable to the defense, such as criminal record databases, the prosecutor should share the results with defense counsel or seek a judicial protective order.
If you are the owner or operator of a facility subject to this part you must prepare a Plan in accordance with good engineering practices. The Plan must have the full approval of management at a level of authority to commit the necessary resources to fully implement the Plan. You must prepare the Plan in writing. If you do not follow the sequence specified in this section for the Plan, you must prepare an equivalent Plan acceptable to the Regional Administrator that meets all of the applicable requirements listed in this part, and you must supplement it with a section cross-referencing the location of requirements listed in this part and the equivalent requirements in the other prevention plan. If the Plan calls for additional facilities or procedures, methods, or equipment not yet fully operational, you must discuss these items in separate paragraphs, and must explain separately the details of installation and operational start-up. As detailed elsewhere in this section, you must also:
This cover sheet will provide EPA with basic information concerning the facility. It must accompany a submitted facility response plan. Explanations and detailed instructions can be found in appendix F. Please type or write legibly in blue or black ink. Public reporting burden for the collection of this information is estimated to vary from 1 hour to 270 hours per response in the first year, with an average of 5 hours per response. This estimate includes time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding the burden estimate of this information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to: Chief, Information Policy Branch, Mail Code: PM-2822, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ariel Rios Building, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460; and to the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, Washington D.C. 20503.
Choose which data to use from each source. For each data source, define report datasets. Each dataset includes a query to specify which data to use. If you have report parameters, define a dataset to populate the available values list for each parameter. For more information, see Report Datasets (SSRS) and Report Parameters (Report Builder and Report Designer).
Customize the data and layout. Design the report layout. A report definition has a report body, data sources, datasets, data regions, text boxes, lines, and images. Rectangles are used as containers for layout as well as visual elements. Customize each data region by writing expressions to control filter, group, sort, format, and display the data. Add report names, locations, and other identifying information that helps to manage dozens or hundreds of reports. Add visual elements and containers to organize the layout elements on the page. For more information, see the following articles:
Consider which components can be re-used. Determine if any of the data sources or dataset queries can be shared for re-use. If so, on the report server or SharePoint site, create shared data sources and shared datasets. Determine if the data regions are suitable for re-use as report parts. For more information, see Report Parts in Report Designer (SSRS). 1e1e36bf2d