Interventional radiology is a medical sub-specialty of radiology utilizing minimally-invasive image-guided procedures to diagnose and treat diseases in nearly every organ system. The concept behind interventional radiology is to diagnose and treat patients using the least invasive techniques currently available in order to minimize risk to the patient and improve health outcomes. These procedures have less risk, less pain and less recovery time in comparison to open surgery.
Interventional radiologists are medical doctors with additional six or seven years of specialized training after medical school. All of our faculty interventionalists have completed a one or two-year fellowship program after their diagnostic radiology residency. They are certified by the American Board of Radiology.
Interventional Radiology (IR) originated within diagnostic radiology as an invasive diagnostic subspecialty. IR is now a therapeutic and diagnostic specialty that comprises a wide range of minimally invasive image-guided therapeutic procedures as well as invasive diagnostic imaging. The range of diseases and organs amenable to image-guided therapeutic and diagnostic procedures are extensive and constantly evolving, and include, but are not limited to, diseases and elements of the vascular, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, genitourinary, pulmonary, musculoskeletal, and, the central nervous system. As part of IR practice, IR physicians provide patient evaluation and management relevant to image-guided interventions in collaboration with other physicians or independently. IR procedures have become an integral part of medical care.
Many minimally invasive image-guided procedures performed by IR have supplanted major surgical procedures by either IR physicians educating other medical fields or IR physicians taking on a clinical role.
Interventional radiology (IR) is the use of medical imaging techniques to guide doctors as they diagnose and treat certain problems with blood vessels and lymph vessels throughout the body. IR is also called image-guided therapy.
Doctors may send patients to an interventional radiologist for many different reasons. Most children who get IR have a tumor or a vascular problem that's treated with image-guided therapies instead of (or along with) traditional surgery or medical therapy.
Interventional radiology is a set of techniques that allows access to the internal structures of the body through body orifices or very small incisions and guidance with medical imaging. Regardless of the reason for the intervention, the procedure will likely use common elements such as a puncture needle (to pass through the skin), guidewires (to guide through structures such as blood vessels or the biliary or urinary systems), a sheath (which slides over the guidewire and holds the path open without injuring it), and catheters (that allow fluids to be pushed through them).
Also common to all intervention radiology procedures are the medical imaging machines that allow the healthcare provider to see what is occurring within the body. Some use x-rays (such as CT and fluoroscopy) and some do not (such as ultrasound and MRI). In each case, the images created may be modified by computer to better visualize the structures as is in the case with digital subtraction angiography, CT and MRI, or the display of the images improved with virtual reality or augmented reality presentation.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH, is a noncancerous condition that commonly affects men over the age of 50. The prostate gland enlarges and compresses the adjacent urethra, making it difficult for men to control frequency and/or urgency of urination. First line therapy involves medication, though long-term treatment for symptoms that are persistent despite medical optimization typically involves transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) as the \"gold standard\" of care. However, TURP can lead to urinary incontinence or permanent male infertility and may not be the ideal procedure for a certain subset of patients. For those reasons, a physician may recommend undergoing a treatment known as prostate artery embolization (PAE).
Since its development by Charles Dotter when he did a percutaneous peripheral vascular revascularization procedure for the first time on January 16, 1964, on Laura Shaw, Vascular & Interventional Radiology (commonly Interventional Radiology or IR) distinguished itself from earlier approaches to vascular disease by the use of medical imaging to guide endovascular therapies (fixing this from inside the vessel). The Seldinger technique is the basic principle that underlies endovascular procedures. Briefly, this involves using a needle to puncture a target vessel, then using a series of small medical guidewires and catheters to pass various tools inside for treatment. When these minimally-invasive techniques can be used, patients avoid the need for larger surgical exposure to treat diseased vessels. Though numerous factors can affect patient's post-operative course, in general an endovascular approach is associated with a more rapid recovery time compared to a traditional open vascular surgery.
Certain monitored exercises, such as walking regimens, have been shown to significantly improve walking distance especially when used consistently for at least 6 months. When medical management fails, vascular interventional radiologists can attempt to restore blood flow to extremities using angioplasty and stenting. Sometimes repeat interventions are required. The goal of therapy is to maintain perfusion, avoid amputation and preserve the limb structure and function.
However, as medical imaging has improved, chronic, asymptomatic dissections have also been discovered, and in some cases these may be safely managed with blood pressure control, follow-up imaging and proper counseling for the warning signs of potential ischemia.
Dialyzer technology initially outpaced the ability of clinicians to apply it to patients. In the 1920s, the first dialysis catheter was created using thin fragile glass tubes. Early methods required surgical incision to reach large vessels, which carried a large risk of major bleeding. The first somewhat permanent, reliable dialysis access, the Scribner Teflon Shunt, was invented nearly 40 years later and allowed a patient with kidney failure to survive 11 more years. As medicine and surgery have grown more sophisticated, more patients now live with chronic renal disease than ever before. The most common type of dialysis in the United States is hemodialysis, which can be performed through several types of vascular access. The arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred method. Arteriovenous fistula are created surgically by directly connecting an artery and a vein, most commonly in the arm. An arteriovenous graft (AVG) relies on the same principle but bridges the gap between the artery and vein with a medical-grade prosthetic shunt. Over time, altered flow mechanics can result in changes within the involved vessels. Vascular narrowing, thrombosis, aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms are commonly encountered complications over the life of an AVF or AVG. Interventional radiologists can use angiography to evaluate these structures (commonly called a Fistulogram) and treat dysfunctional access with angioplasty, stenting, and thrombectomy. Most patients require regular evaluation and treatment to keep their access working. When possible, AVFs are preferred to AVGs due to their relatively lower complication rate and longer patency. The Fistula First initiative works to promote physician and patient awareness about the benefits of first attempting hemodialysis through a fistula. There are a few devices (endo AVF) that are being utilized by interventional radiologists to percutaneously create fistulas in a minimally invasive fashion.
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The near-infrared radiation (NIR) window, also known as the \"optical window\" or \"therapeutic window\", is the range of wavelengths that has the maximum depth of penetration in tissue. Indeed, because NIR is minimally absorbed by water and hemoglobin, spectra readings can be easily collected from the body surface. Recent reports have shown the potential of NIR spectroscopy in various medical applications, including functional analysis of the brain and other tissues, as well as an analytical tool for diagnosing diseases. The broad applicability of NIR spectroscopy facilitates the diagnosis and therapy of diseases as well as elucidating their pathophysiology. This review introduces recent advances and describes new studies in NIR to demonstrate potential clinical applications of NIR spectroscopy.
Interventional radiology (IR) is a specialized field within radiology. In interventional radiology, doctors not only interpret your medical images, but they also perform minimally invasive surgical procedures through small incisions in the body.
In interventional radiology (also called IR), doctors use medical imaging to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures that diagnose, treat, and cure many kinds of conditions. Imaging modalities used include fluoroscopy, MRI, CT, and ultrasound. At UVA Health System, these radiologists work in the department of vascular and interventional radiology.
At UVA, your interventional radiologist attended four years of medical school to become a doctor. Then, they completed a four-year residency in diagnostic radiology before completing their highly specialized one- or two-year fellowship in IR. They are trained extensively in both diagnostic radiology (how to interpret and accurately diagnose medical images) and interventional therapy (performing IR procedures). 59ce067264